我想要整個地球再加上 5 % 一看就懂的貨幣金融系統

Fabian was excited as he once more rehearsed his speech for the crowd certain to turn up tomorrow. He had always wanted prestige and power and now his dreams were going to come true. He was a craftsman working with silver and gold, making jewelry and ornaments, but he became dissatisfied with working for a living. He needed excitement, a challenge, and now his plan was ready to begin.

費邊興奮地練習著明天的集會演講稿。他夢寐以求的地位跟權力全看明天。他是個手工匠,專精於銀跟金,作出各式各樣的首飾跟裝飾品。不過他已經累了,他需要一個新的刺激、挑戰,而明天他的計畫即將開始

For generations the people used the barter system. A man supported his own family by providing all their needs or else he specialised in a particular trade. Whatever surpluses he might have from his own production, he exchanged or swapped for the surplus of others.

世世代代以來,人類依靠著以物易物的系統。一個男人養家的定義為給家庭所有的必需品,或是他靠著一技之長。無論他的職業為何,只要他的物資有多餘的,他就可以拿去跟其他人多餘的物資交換。

Market day was always noise and dusty, yet people looked forward to the shouting and waving, and especially the companionship. It used to be a happy place, but now there were too many people, too much arguing. There was no time for chatting - a better system was needed.
市集總是充斥著噪音跟沙塵,不過人們依然期盼著那喧鬧聲跟歸屬感。以前市集是個令人快樂的地方,不過現在人越來越多,爭執也變得更多。人們再也不互相關心的聊天…一套新的系統是迫在眉梢的。

Generally, the people had been happy, and enjoyed the fruits of their work.
對大多數人來說,他們在舊有系統下快樂,因為能得到他們自己辛苦的成果。

In each community a simple Government had been formed to make sure that each person's freedoms and rights were protected and that no man was forced to do anything against his will by any other man, or any group of men.

在每個社區都有個簡單的政府。他們保障了每個人的自由跟權利,沒有人會被個人或一堆人強迫去作任何違背自己意願的事情。


This was the Government's one and only purpose and each Governor was voluntarily supported by the local community who elected him.
這是政府原型的唯一意義,每個首長都是由當地居民自願的選拔出來。

However, market day was the one problem they could not solve. Was a knife worth one or two baskets of corn? Was a cow worth more than a wagon ?and so on. No one could think of a better system.

市集一切都很好,不過總有個問題他們無法解決。一把刀有兩籃玉米的價值嗎?一隻牛比得上一台木車嗎?諸如此類的問題。沒有人能想得出一套更好的系統。

Fabian had advertised, "I have the solution to our bartering problems, and I invite everyone to a public meeting tomorrow."
費邊對著群眾號稱:『我找出了解決的辦法。我邀請每個人明天來集會!』


The next day there was a great assembly in the town square and Fabian explained all about the new system which he called "money". It sounded good. "How are we to start?" the people asked.

第二天,好奇的人們擠滿了廣場。費邊開始解釋他的新系統,他叫這東西『錢』。聽起來不賴,『那我們要怎麼開始這套系統?』人們問著。

"The gold which I fashion into ornaments and jewelry is an excellent metal. It does not tarnish or rust, and will last a long time. I will make some gold into coins and we shall call each coin a dollar."

『我用來作成首飾跟珠寶的金子,是個很好的金屬,他也不會生鏽顏色也不會黯淡。可以耐得起時間的考驗。我會把一些金子變成硬幣,我們就叫一個硬幣一塊錢。』

He explained how values would work, and that "money" would be really a medium for exchange - a much better system than bartering.
費邊解釋了價值的意義,以及錢實際用途在於交換用的媒介…一個比以物易物更好的系統。

One of the Governors questioned, "Some people can dig gold and make coins for themselves", he said.
一個首長問了:『可是有些人會去自己挖掘黃金,然後自己鑄造硬幣啊』


"This would be most unfair", Fabian was ready with the answer. "Only those coins approved by the Government can be used, and these will have special marking stamped on them." This seemed reasonable and it was proposed that each man be given an equal number. "But I deserve the most," said the candle-maker. "Everyone uses my candles." "No", said the farmer, "without food there is no life, surely we should get the most." And so the bickering continued.

『那真是太不公平了』費邊有準備的回答道。『當然只有那些得到政府允許的硬幣才可以使用,他們將會有特殊的花紋印在上面。』大家同意這聽起來很合理,接著決定了每個人將會得到同等數目的硬幣。『不過我應該得到最多啊!』蠟燭的師父說著,『每個人都用我的蠟燭』。『不!』農夫接著說『沒有了食物就沒有辦法活下去,我們才應該拿到最多』人們就這樣子的吵了起來。


Fabian let them argue for a while and finally he said, "Since none of you can agree, I suggest you obtain the number you require from me. There will be no limit, except for your ability to repay. The more you obtain, the more you must repay in one year's time. "And what will you receive?" the people asked.

費邊讓他們吵了一陣子才又開始說話 『既然你們都無法同意,我建議你們直接跟我領硬幣。你的償還能力為限制。』 你拿得越多,年底的你則需要還越多。『那你賺什麼呢?』人們問了。


"Since I am providing a service, that is, the money supply, I am entitled to payment for my work. Let us say that for every 100 pieces you obtain, you repay me 105 for every year that you owe the debt. The 5 will be my charge, and I shall call this charge interest."

『既然我提供服務,也就是金錢的提供,我理應拿一點錢當作我工作的報酬。讓我們假設你們每借一百塊錢,你年底就還我一百零五塊錢。那五塊錢就是我的利潤,我叫這筆錢為利息。』

There seemed to be no other way, and besides, 5% seemed little enough charge. "Come back next Friday and we will begin."

看起來也沒有其他的辦法,況且,5% 看起來也只是一點點。『下個禮拜五,我們就開始用新的系統吧』費邊說著。


Fabian wasted no time. He made coins day and night, and at the end of the week he was ready. The people were queued up at his shop, and after the coins were inspected and approved by the Governors the system commenced. Some borrowed only a few and they went off to try the new system.

費邊沒有浪費一分一秒。他日以繼夜的鑄造硬幣,到了那個週末,他就準備好了足夠所有人需要用的量。人們在他的店面前排出了長長的人龍,首長仔細的檢視了硬幣之後正式宣佈新系統的開始。有些人只借了一點點,就開始了測試這套新的系統。


They found money to be marvelous, and they soon valued everything in gold coins or dollars. The value they placed on everything was called a "price", and the price mainly depended on the amount of work required to produce it. If it took a lot of work the price was high, but if it was produced with little effort it was quite inexpensive.

他們發現錢的好處,人們非常迅速的開始幫每樣東西標上了用錢為單位的數字,他們叫這數字『價格』。價格的高低通常是由製造產品所需要下的功夫來決定。如果需要下很多功夫,那價格就會很高,不過如果輕易地就能肇造出來,那價格通常偏低。


In one town lived Alan, who was the only watchmaker. His prices were high because the customers were willing to pay just to own one of his watches.

在另外一個城鎮有個鍾錶工匠叫做艾倫。他的價格很高,因為人們願意用高昂的價格來換取他製作的一隻手錶。

Then another man began making watches and offered them at a lower price in order to get sales. Alan was forced to lower his prices, and in no time at all prices came down, so that both men were striving to give the best quality at the lowest price. This was genuine free competition.

接著另外一個人也開始賣手錶,不過為了能賣得更好,他的售價較低。愛倫不得不壓低他的價格,非常快的所有鍾錶的價格都下跌了,愛倫跟其他的鍾錶工匠被逼迫著生產著高品質且低價的產品。 這是真實的自由競爭。

It was the same with builders, transport operators, accountants, farmers, in fact, in every endeavour. The customers always chose what they felt was the best deal - they had freedom of choice. There was no artificial protection such as licences or tariffs to prevent other people from going into business. The standard of living rose, and before long the people wondered how they had ever done without money.

建築師們也遭遇到同樣的事情,還有運輸搬運者、會計師、農夫們,其實各行各業都遭受到了同等的事情。顧客選擇了他們認為最好的交易…他們擁有著選擇的自由。那個時候沒有所謂的外力介入,例如執照或是科稅來防止人們開展自己的生意。平均的生活水準提昇,不久之後的人們簡直不敢想像沒有金錢的生活。

At the end of the year, Fabian left his shop and visited all the people who owed him money. Some had more than they borrowed, but this meant that others had less, since there were only a certain number of coins issued in the first place. Those who had more than they borrowed paid back each 100 plus the extra 5, but still had to borrow again to carry on.

年底的時候,費邊離開了他的小店面,去到處收款。有些人賺到了比他們借的還多的錢,不過這也同時意味著其他人少了點錢,畢竟硬幣的數目並沒有辦法憑空增加。那些賺到多餘錢的人,每一百塊錢就多付給了費邊五塊錢,不過仍然需要借更多錢繼續他們的生意。


The others discovered for the first time that they had a debt. Before he would lend them more money, Fabian took a mortgage over some of their assets, and everyone went away once moreto try and get those extra 5 coins whichalways seemed so hard to find.

另外那些第一次發現他們有負債。現在費邊如果要借給他們錢之前,會用他們的資產提出貸款。人們拿到錢了以後,再次開始想辦法賺那個永遠很難找到的五塊錢。

No one realised that as a whole, the country could never get out of debt until all the coins were repaid, but even then, there were those extra 5 on each 100 which had never been lent out at all. No one but Fabian could see that it was impossible to pay the interest - the extra money had never been issued, therefore someone had to miss out.

沒有人發現整體來說,整個國家永遠沒有辦法不負債,除非所有的硬幣都歸還給費邊。就算所有的硬幣都歸還了,還有那從未被借出過每一百塊錢多出來的五塊錢。除了費邊沒有人發現那利息是永遠沒辦法還清的,畢竟那些錢從來沒有被製造出來,也就是說永遠會有一部份的人是會陷入負債的窘境。
It was true that Fabian spent some coins, but he couldn't possibly spend anything like 5% of the total economy on himself. There were thousands of people and Fabian was only one. Besides, he was still a goldsmith making a comfortable living.

費邊為了生活當然會花一點錢,不過他個人的花費不可能達到總經濟體的5%。畢竟有幾千個人,而只有一個費邊。況且他還是一個有著專門技能的金匠,過著舒適的生活。


At the back of his shop Fabian had a strongroom and people found it convenient to leave some of their coins with him for safekeeping. He charged a small fee depending on the amount of money, and the time it was left with him. He would give the owner receipts for the deposit.

在費邊店舖的後面,他闢了一間堅固的房子,人們如果有多餘的硬幣,發現放在他的房子裡面還蠻方便的。他會依照金額多寡還有時間長短來收取手續費。他會給那些硬幣擁有者一張收據當作證明。

When a person went shopping, he did not normally carry a lot of gold coins. He would give the shopkeeper one of the receipts to the value of the goods he wanted to buy.

當一個人出去買東西,他普通並不需要帶著很多金幣。他會給店家一張跟產品同等價值的收據。

Shopkeepers recognised the receipt as being genuine and accepted it with the idea of taking it to Fabian and collecting the appropriate amount in coins. The receipts passed from hand to hand instead of the gold itself being transferred. The people had great faith in the receipts - they accepted them as being as good as coins.

店家們檢查了這張收據的真實性,且收下因為他們知道只要拿去給費邊就可以取得同等價值的硬幣。這些收據在人們之間流傳,代替了金幣。人們開始對於這些收據建立了信心,他們承認這些收據跟硬幣一樣好用。
Before long, Fabian noticed that it was quite unusual for anyone to actually call for their gold coins.

不久之後,費邊發現人們很少會來要求提取他們的金幣。
He thought to himself, "Here I am in possession of all this gold and I am still a hard working craftsman. It doesn't make sense. Why there are dozens of people who would be glad to pay me interest for the use of this gold which is lying here and rarely called for.

『我擁有著這些金子,我依舊是個辛苦工作的匠人。這一點都說不通。畢竟會有一堆人們為了借這些躺在這邊的金子,會樂意的付給我利息。

It is true, the gold is not mine - but it is in my possession, which is all that matters. I hardly need to make any coins at all, I can use some of the coins stored in the vault."

的確!我並不是這些金子的主人…不過這些金子卻是被我實質上擁有的,這才是最重要的。 我根本不需要製造任何硬幣,我可以直接用我保險屋裡面的。』費邊這樣子的想著。

At first he was very cautious, only loaning a few at a time, and then only on tremendous security. But gradually he became bolder, and larger amounts were loaned.

一開始他很小心,只肯小額的借出款項,而且保全做得非常好。不過漸漸的,他越來越勇敢,借出的金額也越來越大。
One day, a large loan was requested. Fabian suggested, "Instead of carrying all these coins we can make a deposit in your name, and then I shall give you several receipts to the value of the coins." The borrower agreed, and off he went with a bunch of receipts. He had obtained a loan, yet the gold remained in the strong-room. After the client left, Fabian smiled. He could have his cake and eat it too. He could "lend" gold and still keep it in his possession.

有一天,有人要求一筆很大的借款。費邊建議著『與其借給你一堆硬幣,不如我把你借的款項存起來,然後我會給你同等價值的收據』借款的人欣然同意。 人們借到了錢,不過硬幣依然好好的躺在費邊的房間裡面。當他的顧客離開之後,費邊的嘴角不自覺的上揚。他可以拿著蛋糕還吃一口(註:得寸進尺的意思)他可以『借出』金子,不過依然讓金子留在他的寶庫裡面。


Friends, strangers and even enemies needed funds to carry out their businesses - and so long as they could produce security, they could borrow as much as they needed. By simply writing out receipts Fabian was able to "lend" money to several times the value of gold in his strong-room, and he was not even the owner of it. Everything was safe so long as the real owners didn't call for their gold and the confidence of the people was maintained.

朋友、陌生人甚至他的敵人都需要錢來達到他們的目的…只要他們有同等價值的保障,他們可以就可以借到錢。只要拿筆寫在紙上寫出一張收據,費邊可以重複的『借出』同一堆金子,他甚至不是這些金子的擁有者。一切都很安全,只要真正的擁有者沒有提出他們的金子,且人們的信心保持著。


He kept a book showing the debits and credits for each person. The lending business was proving to be very lucrative indeed.

費邊有一本書,上面寫著每個人的經濟狀況,是負債或是存款。借錢的事業證明了是個很有賺頭的買賣。

His social standing in the community was increasing almost as fast as his wealth. He was becoming a man of importance, he commanded respect. In matters of finance, his very word was like a sacred pronouncement.

他的社會地位提昇的速度幾乎跟他的財富上昇速度相當。他變成一個重要的人,他有著眾人的尊敬。只要是有關經濟的任何事項,他吐出的每一個字都像聖旨一般的被尊崇著。


.
Goldsmiths from other towns became curious about his activities and one day they called to see him. He told them what he was doing, but was very careful to emphasize the need for secrecy.

其他城鎮的金匠對費邊最近的活動感到好奇,於是有一天他們就來拜訪了費邊。費邊告訴了他們他的計畫,而且慎重的告訴他們保持秘密的重要性。

If their plan was exposed, the scheme would fail, so they agreed to form their own secret alliance.

如果他們的計畫被發現了,那會全面崩盤,所以他們一起組成了一個秘密的聯盟。

Each returned to his own town and began to operate as Fabian had taught

每個金匠回到了他們自己的村莊,依樣畫葫蘆的開始了費邊的系統。
People now accepted the receipts as being as good as gold itself, and many receipts were deposited for safe keeping in the same way as coins. When a merchant wished to pay another for goods, he simply wrote a short note instructing Fabian to transfer money from his account to that of the second merchant. It took Fabian only a few minutes to adjust the figures.

人們現在承認那些收據跟金子一樣好用,而且還有更多的收據放在金庫裡面,就好像金子一樣。當一個商人想要買下某種產品,他會用他的名義寫一張紙條給費邊,指使費邊把錢轉給其他的商人。改改數字只花了費邊幾分鐘的時間。

This new system became very popular, and the instruction notes were called "checks".

這個新系統受到了歡迎,而這些指使轉帳的紙條叫做『支票』。

Late one night, the goldsmiths had another secret meeting and Fabian revealed a new plan. The next day they called a meeting with all the Governors, and Fabian began. "The receipts we issue have become very popular. No doubt, most of you Governors are using them and you find them very convenient." They nodded in agreement and wondered what the problem was. "Well", he continued, "some receipts are being copied by counterfeiters. This practice must be stopped."

有一天的晚上,所有的金匠秘密地聚集一堂,費邊又有了新計畫。第二天早上他們跟所 有的首長一起召開會議。『我們所發行的收據無可否認的受到廣大的歡迎。毫無疑問的,連各位在座的首長們想必也發現此種收據的方便性。』費邊說道,在場的所有人都點著頭,不知道哪裡有問題。『不過,』費邊接著說道『有些收據是偽造的。此種行為一定要被阻止。』


The Governors became alarmed. "What can we do?" they asked. Fabian replied, "My suggestion is this - first of all, let it be the Government's job to print new notes on a special paper with very intricate designs, and then each note to be signed by the chief Governor. We goldsmiths will be happy to pay the printing costs, as it will save us a lot of time writing out receipts". The Governors reasoned, "Well, it is our job to protect the people against counterfeiters and the advice certainly seems like a good idea." So they agreed to print the notes.

各首長們開始緊張。『那我們能怎麼辦呢?』他們問道。費邊回『我的建議是這樣…先讓政府印出一種有高度複雜花紋的收據,用特殊的紙,然後每張收據上面都有首長的簽名。我們這些金匠會很樂意的提供印刷的費用,因為這讓我們省下許多寫收據的時間。』首長們回答『也好。我們的工作就是要保護人們不會受到偽鈔的欺騙,而你的建議看起來像個很好的主意。』所以他們同意開始印製鈔票。


"Secondly," Fabian said, "some people have gone prospecting and are making their own gold coins. I suggest that you pass a law so that any person who finds gold nuggets must hand them in. Of course, they will be reimbursed with notes and coins."

『第二點』費邊接著『有些人開始自行生產金幣來獲取暴利,我建議你們通過一條法律,規定所有挖到金塊的人必須要繳納給政府。當然,他們會得到相等價值的鈔票跟硬幣。』


The idea sounded good and without too much thought about it, they printed a large number of crisp new notes. Each note had a value printed on it - $1, $2, $5, $10 etc. The small printing costs were paid by the goldsmiths.

這個主意聽起來很好,沒有想太多的他們開始印製了大量的新鈔。每張鈔票有個價值印在上面,一塊錢、兩塊錢、五塊錢、十塊錢等等。印刷所需要的小額資金則全部由金匠們付給。



The notes were much easier to carry and they soon became accepted by the people. Despite their popularity however, these new notes and coins were used for only 10% of transactions. The records showed that the check system accounted for 90% of all business.

鈔票有著容易攜帶的優點,非常快的人們接受了此一價值媒介不過無論這樣東西如何的受歡迎,他們實際上在整個經濟體下,只代表著一成的使用率。紀錄顯示支票系統還是佔去了九成的商業交易市場


The next part of his plan commenced. Until now, people were paying Fabian to guard their money. In order to attract more money into the vault Fabian offered to pay depositors 3% interest on their money.

費邊下一個計畫開始了。一直到現在為止,人們存錢的同時要付給手續費。為了吸引更多的資金,費邊現在開始提供 3% 的利息給存款者。

Most people believed that he was re-lending their money out to borrowers at 5%, and his profit was the 2% difference. Besides, the people didn't question him as getting 3% was far better than paying to have the money guarded.
大部分的人相信費邊只是把大家的錢借出賺取 5% 的費用,由於 3% 的利息費邊本身只賺取 2% 的差價。另外,人們很樂意多拿到了 3% 再怎麼樣也比付出手續費來得好。

The volume of savings grew and with the additional money in the vaults, Fabian was able to lend $200, $300, $400 sometimes up to $900 for every $100 in notes and coins that he held in deposit. He had to be careful not to exceed this nine to one ratio, because one person in ten did require the notes and coins for use.

儲金的數目字越來越大,隨著儲蓄的成長,費邊可以用一百塊錢借出兩百、三百、四百、甚至九百塊錢。 他要小心的不超過這個九比一的比例,因為大概有十分之一的人口還是使用著真正的鈔票跟硬幣。


If there was not enough money available when required, people would become suspicious, especially as their deposit books showed how much they had deposited. Nevertheless, on the $900 in book figures that Fabian loaned out by writing checks himself, he was able to demand up to $45 in interest, i.e. 5% on $900. When the loan plus interest was repaid, i.e. $945, the $900 was cancelled out in the debit column and Fabian kept the $45 interest. He was therefore quite happy to pay $3 interest on the original $100 deposited which had never left the vaults at all. This meant that for every $100 he held in deposits, it was possible to make 42% profit, most people believing he was only making 2%. The other goldsmiths were doing the same thing. They created money out of nothing at the stroke of a pen, and then charged interest on top of it.

如果大家提款的時候發現沒有錢,那人們就會開始產生猜忌,尤其當他們的存款簿清楚的寫著他們有多少儲蓄。無論如何,費邊用自己寫的支票,所借出的九百塊錢他可以要求 $45 當作利息。九百塊的 5%。當此筆借款償還的時候,也就是九百四十五元,那九百塊錢會跟帳簿裡面的九百欠款取消,而費邊收下那四十五塊錢。他當然很樂意的付出那 3% 的利息,畢竟那一百塊錢從來也沒離開過他的金庫。這意味著每一百塊錢,費邊可以獲取42%的利潤,當人們普遍以為他賺2%。其他的金匠也作著同樣的事情,他們大筆一揮的創造了金錢,之後甚至還要求利息。

True, they didn't coin money, the Government actually printed the notes and coins and gave it to the goldsmiths to distribute. Fabian's only expense was the small printing fee. Still, they were creating credit money out of nothing and charging interest on top of it. Most people believed that the money supply was a Government operation. They also believed that Fabian was lending them the money that someone else had deposited, but it was very strange that no one's deposits ever decreased when a loan was advanced. If everyone had tried to withdraw their deposits at once, the fraud would have been exposed.

事實上,金匠們也的確並沒有親手製造了金錢,政府擁有著印刷廠跟鑄幣廠,印出了鈔票跟鑄造了硬幣之後,由金匠們去使用。費邊唯一的開銷只有那個小額的印刷費。不過,這改變不了他們憑空創造信用的事實,且還用此跟人們要求了利息。大多數人認為政府提供了金錢的來源。他們同時也相信費邊出借著別人存進去的錢,雖然當有人借錢的時候並沒有任何人的帳號下的錢變少。如果每個人同時領錢,這場騙局就會被揭穿。

When a loan was requested in notes or coins, it presented no problem. Fabian merely explained to the Government that the increase in population and production required more notes, and these he obtained for the small printing fee.

當有人想要借一筆款項用鈔票跟硬幣,問題並不大。費邊只要跟政府解釋說人口跟經濟成長許多,需要更多鈔票,政府就會讓他多印點,這些只花了他一點印刷費。



One day a thoughtful man went to see Fabian. "This interest charge is wrong", he said. "For every $100 you issue, you are asking $105 in return. The extra $5 can never be paid since it doesn't exist.

有一天,一個思慮周詳的人來見費邊。『這套利息制度有問題』他開門見山的說『每一百塊錢,你就要求一百零五塊錢。那多餘的五塊錢沒有人付得出來,因為他根本就不存在。

Farmers produce food, industry manufacturers goods, and so on, but only you produce money. Suppose there are only two businessmen in the whole country and we employ everyone else. We borrow $100 each, we pay $90 out in wages and expenses and allow $10 profit (our wage). That means the total purchasing power is $90 + $10 twice, i.e. $200. Yet to pay you we must sell all our produce for $210. If one of us succeeds and sells all his produce for $105, the other man can only hope to get $95. Also, part of his goods cannot be sold, as there is no money left to buy them.

農夫製造食物,工廠生產了各式各樣的產品,不過只有你製造金錢。假如這世界上只有我跟另外一個商人,且我們僱用了所有其他人。我們各自借了一百塊錢,九十塊錢是開銷跟薪水,那十塊錢則是利潤(也就是我們的薪水)。這代表著總共購買能力是兩個九十塊錢 + 兩個十塊錢,也就是兩百塊錢。不過,為了要付給你利息,我們總共得賣出兩百一十塊錢的產品。 如果我們其中一個賣出了一百零五塊錢,另外一個人怎麼賣也只能賣九十五。他還會產能過剩,因為沒有人有剩餘的錢可以買走他的產品。

He will still owe you $10 and can only repay this by borrowing more. The system is impossible."
他會欠你十塊錢,而且他只能靠著多借錢才有希望能償還。這系統根本就不可行。』

The man continued, "Surely you should issue 105, i.e. 100 to me and 5 to you to spend. This way there would be 105 in circulation, and the debt can be repaid."

他繼續說道『你應該付出一百零五,一百給我然後把那個五塊錢花掉。這樣子那一百零五塊錢就回到了系統,債務才有還清的可能性。』

Fabian listened quietly and finally said, "Financial economics is a deep subject, my boy, it takes years of study. Let me worry about these matters, and you look after yours. You must become more efficient, increase your production, cut down on your expenses and become a better businessman. I am always willing to help in these matters."

費邊安靜的聆聽了他的話之後才說『孩子啊,經濟是一個博大精深的題材,需要十年寒窗苦讀才有辦法理解。讓我來擔心這些事情就好了,你只要做好你自己的生意即可。你一定要提高你生意的效率,增加你的產能,縮減你的開銷才會變成一個好的生意人。如果你需要那方面幫忙,我會非常樂意的。』

The man went away still unconvinced. There was something wrong with Fabian's operations and he felt that his questions had been avoided.

這個人心中懷有疑問的離去。他深信費邊的系統有問題,而且他的問題被費邊打太極了。

Yet, most people respected Fabian's word - "He is the expert, the others must be wrong. Look how the country has developed, how our production has increased - we must be better off."

人們依然尊敬著費邊的一言一行。『他是專業的,其他人一定是錯的。看看這國家發展的多好啊,我們的產能提昇了…我們一定比以前更富有。』

To cover the interest on the money they had borrowed, merchants were forced to raise their prices. Wage earners complained that wages were too low. Employers refused to pay higher wages, claiming that they would be ruined. Farmers could not get a fair price for their produce. Housewives complained that food was getting too dear.

為了要為借款付出利息,商人被逼迫著提高了售價。薪水階級抱怨薪水過低。老闆們拒絕付出更高的薪水,因為如此一來他們自己也會吃不飽。農夫無法取得一個合理的價格。家庭主婦抱怨物價變得更高。


And finally some people went on strike, a thing previously unheard of. Others had become poverty stricken and their friends and relatives could not afford to help them. Most had forgotten the real wealth all around - the fertile soils, the great forests, the minerals and cattle. They could think only of the money which always seemed so scarce. But they never questioned the system.They believed the Government was running it.

終於,開始有人罷工遊行了,一個從來未曾發生過的事情。有些人陷入貧窮,而他們的朋友跟家人都自身難保。大多數人忘記了圍繞著他們的真正資產…肥沃的土地跟茂密的森林,礦產跟畜牧。他們只想著越來越難取得的錢。不過他們從來不曾對這系統產生疑問,他們信賴著政府運作此系統的能力。
A few had pooled their excess money and formed "lending" or "finance" companies. They could get 6% or more this way, which was better than the 3% Fabian paid, but they could only lend out money they owned - they did not have this strange power of being able to create money out of nothing by merely writing figures in books.

有些人把他們的積蓄集中,成立了『借款中心』或是『地下錢莊』。他們可以拿到6%以上的利潤,怎麼樣都比費邊所給的 3% 利息好。不過他們只能借出他們真正擁有的錢…他們沒有那種神秘的力量,那種只要在書本裡面寫一寫數字就能製造出錢的力量。

These finance companies worried Fabian and his friends somewhat, so they quickly set up a few companies of their own. Mostly, they bought the others out before they got going. In no time, all the finance companies were owned by them, or under their control.

這些地下錢莊讓費邊跟他們的朋友們擔心。所以他們自己迅速的設立了類似的公司。大多的時候,他們買下所有的競爭者。一轉眼的時光,所有的地下錢莊都被他們所擁有,或是非直接的被他們控制。

The economic situation got worse. The wage earners were convinced that the bosses were making too much profit. The bosses said that their workers were too lazy and weren't doing an honest day's work, and everyone was blaming everyone else.The Governors could not come up with an answer and besides, the immediate problem seemed to be to help the poverty stricken.

經濟每況愈下。白領階級開始深信老闆們賺太多。而老闆們開始說員工太懶惰。人們開始互相猜忌、怪罪。首長們無法找出解決的方法,況且當下立即的問題看起來是幫助那些貧窮的人。


They started up welfare schemes and made laws forcing people to contribute to them. This made many people angry - they believed in the old-fashioned idea of helping one's neighbour by voluntary effort.

政府"開始了福利系統,且逼迫人民納稅。這讓人們開始抱怨,大家都希望幫助他人是一個自發性的行為。而不是利用這種強迫的手段。


"These laws are nothing more than legalised robbery. To take something off a person against his will, regardless of the purpose for which it is to be used, is no different from stealing."

『這些法律簡直就是合法化的搶劫。 違背人類意願的取走個人財物,不管理由有多麼正當,就是搶劫。』

But each man felt helpless and was afraid of the jail sentence which was threatened for failing to pay. These welfare schemes gave some relief, but before long the problem was back and more money was needed to cope. The cost of these schemes rose higher and higher and the size of the Government grew.

不過每個人面對著刑罰的威脅之下無能為力。這些福利措施暫時性的減緩貧窮的症狀,不過社會問題春風吹又生,且每次都需要更多的錢才壓得下去。這些福利措施要求的金額越來越多,而政府的體積也日益龐大。

Most of the Governors were sincere men trying to do their best. They didn't like asking for more money from their people and finally, they had no choice but to borrow money from Fabian and his friends. They had no idea how they were going to repay. Parents could no longer afford to pay teachers for their children. They couldn't pay doctors. And transport operators were going out of business.

大多數的首長,都是當地受到敬重的老實人,他們只想要做好他們的工作。他們並不喜歡跟人們要求更多的錢,所以到最後他們沒有選擇,只好跟費邊的一幫人借錢。而且,連他們都不知道他們要怎麼償還借款。 普通父母再也沒有錢付給孩子們的老師。他們也無法負擔醫藥費用。連運輸界都開始產生龐大赤字。

One by one the government was forced to take these operations over. Teachers, doctors and many others became public servants.

政府只好一個一個的買下這些產業。老師、醫生、還有許多其他職業的人變成了幫政府做事情的公務員。

Few obtained satisfaction in their work. They were given a reasonable wage, but they lost their identity. They became small cogs in a giant machine

只有少數人對自己的工作感到滿意。他們有著理想的薪水,不過他們喪失了自我。他們變成一台大機器裡面的小齒輪。

There was no room for personal initiative, little recognition for effort, their income was fixed and advancement came only when a superior retired or died.
在企業裡面再也沒有個人主張伸張的機會,努力付出並沒辦法得到認可,他們的薪水萬年不變,唯一晉級的機會是當他的上司退休或死亡。

In desperation, the governors decided to seek Fabian's advice. They considered him very wise and he seemed to know how to solve money matters. He listened to them explain all their problems, and finally he answered, "Many people cannot solve their own problems - they need someone to do it for them. Surely you agree that most people have the right to be happy and to be provided with the essentials of life. One of our great sayings is "all men are equal" - is it not?"

首長們眼見著問題日益嚴重,他們決定請求費邊的意見。 大家都覺得費邊很聰明,且對於經濟很有一套。 他仔細的聆聽首長們的問題後回答道『大多數人沒有辦法解決自己的問題…他們需要其他人的幫助。各位首長們當然認為大多數人有快樂的權利,而且需要生活必需品。畢竟我們最偉大的名言之一是」人類生而平等」不是嗎?

Well, the only way to balance things up is to take the excess wealth from the rich and give it to the poor. Introduce a system of taxation. The more a man has, the more he must pay. Collect taxes from each person according to his ability, and give to each according to his need. Schools and hospitals should be free for those who cannot afford them ?

我想,唯一的方法就是把有錢人的資源轉給貧窮的人。開始稅金製度。一個人他所擁有資產越多,他就得付更多錢。依照每個人的能力來收稅,依照每個人的需要給予他們物資。學校跟醫院對於貧窮的人來說應該是免費的…』


He gave them a long talk on high sounding ideals and finished up with, "Oh, by the way, don't forget you owe me money. You've been borrowing now for quite some time. The least I can do to help, is for you to just to pay me the interest. We'll leave the capital debt owing, just pay me the interest."

費邊給了場既長又大唱高調的演講,最後還補上一句『對了,別忘記你們都還欠我錢,你們借了很久了一段時間。我很想要幫忙,這樣子好了,你們只要償還利息就好了。先付給我利息就可了。』

They went away, and without giving Fabian's philosophies any real thought, they introduced the graduated income tax - the more you earn, the higher your tax rate. No one liked this, but they either paid the taxes or went to jail.

首長們沒有多加思索費邊的理論之後就走了。他們開始了一套累進所得稅制…你賺越多,你要繳的稅越多。沒有人喜歡這套,不過人們要不繳稅要不坐牢,並沒有其他的選擇。

Mechants were forced once again to raise their prices. Wage earners demanded higher wages forcing many employers out of business, or to replace men with machinery. This caused additional unemployment and forced the Government to introduce further welfare and handout schemes.

商人們被迫再次提昇售價。薪水階級也要求了更高的薪水,讓許多老闆生意作不下去,或是用機械替人力。這提昇了失業率之後,政府只好再度加強福利措施。

Tariffs and other protection devices were introduced to keep some industries going just to provide employment. A few people wondered if the purpose of the production was to produce goods or merely to provide employment.

許多與關稅類似的保護措施展開,來保護某些產業。開始有人懷疑製造業到底是為了生產商品,還是純粹為了提供就業機會。

As things got worse, they tried wage control, price control, and all sorts of controls. The Government tried to get more money through sales tax, payroll tax and all sorts of taxes. Someone noted that from the wheat farmer right through to the housewife, there were over 50 taxes on a loaf of bread.
隨著局勢不安,政府展開了更多的控制。薪水控制、物價控制、諸如此類的。政府也同時間為了吸取更多資金,開拓了營業稅、所得稅還有各式各樣的稅收。 有人計算過,從農夫到家庭主婦,一條麵包上面有超過五十種稅金。

"Experts" arose and some were elected to Government, but after each yearly meeting they came back with almost nothing achieved, except for the news that taxes were to be "restructured", but overall the total tax always increased.

『專家』開始出現,有些當選了首長,不過每年的會議都無法得到滿意的結果,除了稅制需要『重整』不過整體而言,稅金不斷的上揚。

Fabian began to demand his interest payments, and a larger and larger portion of the tax money was being needed to pay him.

費邊開始要求他的利息得到償還,越來越多的稅金進入了費邊的口袋。

Then came party politics - the people started arguing about which group of Governors could best solve the problems. They argued about personalities, idealism, party labels, everything except the real problem. The councils were getting into trouble.

接著,開始了黨派鬥爭…人們開始吵鬧哪一堆首長最能解決他們的問題。他們吵了人格問題、中心思想、黨派旗幟等等,除了真正的問題。政府遭受到了空前的災難。

In one town the interest on the debt exceeded the amount of rates which were collected in a year. Throughout the land the unpaid interest kept increasing - interest was charged on unpaid interest.

在某一個小鎮,他們負債的利息超過了每年的稅收。整個地方的無法償還利息不斷的增加,而無法償還利息的上面還有利息。

Gradually much of the real wealth of the country came to be owned or controlled by Fabian and his friends and with it came greater control over people. However, the control was not yet complete. They knew that the situation would not be secure until every person was controlled.

漸漸的,大部分真正的資產變成了費邊與他朋友們的資產,利用這些資產他們對於大眾擁有了更多的控制。不過他們還沒有完全的控制。他們知道,要達到完全控制唯一辦法就是控制每一個人。

Most people opposing the systems could be silenced by financial pressure, or suffer public ridicule. To do this Fabian and his friends purchased most of the newspapers, T.V. and radio stations and he carefully selected people to operate them. Many of these people had a sincere desire to improve the world, but they never realised how they were being used. Their solutions always dealt with the effects of the problem, never the cause.

反對此系統的人,大多被經濟壓力所迫或是遭受到與論界的非議。這是因為 費邊與他的朋友們買下了大多的報紙、電視以及電台頻道 ,他小心翼翼的選人來作這些工作。許多中選的人有著真心想要改善世界,不過他們都不知道被利用著的事實。 他們的解決方法永遠治標不治本。

There were several different newspapers - one for the right wing, one for the left wing, one for the workers, one for the bosses, and so on. It didn't matter much which one you believed in, so long as you didn't think about the real problem.

那邊有許多不同的報紙,一個給左派、一個給右派、一個給勞力階層、一個給老闆們…等等。其實你偏向哪邊根本沒關係,只要能讓你不去思考真正的問題,他們的目的就達到了。

Fabian's plan was almost at its completion - the whole country was in debt to him. Through education and the media, he had control of people's minds. They were able to think and believe only what he wanted them to.

費邊的計畫快要完成了…整個國家都欠債於他。利用教育跟媒體,他控制著人民的思想。人們只能在費邊所給予的範圍內思考。

After a man has far more money than he can possibly spend for pleasure, what is left to excite him? For those with a ruling class mentality, the answer is power - raw power over other human beings. The idealists were used in the media and in Government, but the real controllers that Fabian sought were those of the ruling class mentality.

當一個人有了揮霍不完的錢之後,還有什麼東西能讓他感到興奮呢?那些有著統治階級思想的人,答案就是權力… 赤裸裸的權力籠罩著他人。理想主義者在媒體跟政府裡面被利用著,不過費邊只會把真正的控制權給有統治階級思想的人。

Most of the goldsmiths had become this way. They knew the feeling of great wealth, but it no longer satisfied them. They needed challenge and excitement, and power over the masses was the ultimate game.

金匠們大多都變成如此的人。他們享受過了擁有大筆資產的感覺,不過這已經無法滿足他們。他們需要挑戰跟刺激,而最後的遊戲就是統治全體的權力。

They believed they were superior to all others. "It is our right and duty to rule. The masses don't know what is good for them. They need to be rallied and organised. To rule is our birthright."

他們相信自己比其他人優秀。『管理大眾是我們的權利跟責任,人們不知道什麼對他們才是好的,他們需要被鼓勵還有組織。我們一生出來就應該統治其他人。』


Throughout the land Fabian and his friends owned many lending offices. True, they were privately and separately owned. In theory they were in competition with each other, but in reality they were working very closely together. After persuading some of the Governors, they set up an institution which they called the Money Reserve Centre. They didn't even use their own money to do this - they created credit against part of the money out of the people's deposits.

費邊與他的朋友們擁有著許多地下錢莊,當然是各有所屬的。理論上他們是互相競爭的,不過實際上他們互相合作。跟政府協商過後,他們設立了一個組織叫做『金錢儲備中心』他們連自己的錢都不用…他們利用人民的部份儲蓄來創造信用。

This Institution gave the outward appearance of regulating the money supply and being a Government operation, but strangely enough, no Governor or public servant was ever allowed to be on the Board of Directors.

這個組織外表看起來是管理分配有限的金融資源的政府機構,不過奇怪的是,沒有首長或是公務員可以進入此組織的理事會。

The Government no longer borrowed directly from Fabian, but began to use a system of I.O.U.'s to the Money Reserve Centre. The security offered was the estimated revenue from next year's taxes.This was in line with Fabian's plan - removing suspicion from himself to an apparent Government operation. Yet, behind the scenes, he was still in control.

政府再也不直接的跟費邊借錢,不過開始跟金錢儲備中心之間設立了借償系統。穩定的收入源自於明年的稅收。 這符合費邊的計畫…轉移人們的猜忌到政府的事業上的同時在背後依然控制著金融大業。

Indirectly, Fabian had such control over the Government that they were forced to do his bidding. He boasted, "Let me control the nation's money and I care not who makes its laws." It didn't matter much which group of Governors were elected. Fabian was in control of the money, the life blood of the nation.

間接的,費邊影響政府的力量大到政府得聽他的話。他自負 『讓我控制國家的錢,那麼誰來制定法律對我都沒差。』 誰當選首長都一樣。費邊有著掌控經濟的實力,國家的血脈。

The Government obtained the money, but interest was always charged on every loan. More and more was going out in welfare and handout schemes, and it was not long before the Government found it difficult to even repay the interest, let alone the capital.

政府可以無限制的得到錢,不過利息的壓力揮之不去。越來越多的錢從福利措施中漏出,很快的,政府連利息都無力償還,更別說本金了。

And yet there were people who still asked the question, "Money is a man-made system. Surely it can be adjusted to serve, not to rule?" But these people became fewer and their voices were lost in the mad scrabble for the non-existent interest.

不過還是有人問著這老問題『金融系統是完全人造的,它應該可以調整成服務人們,而不是統治人民?』不過這些人越來越少,他們的聲音被瘋狂尋找金錢來償還利息的人們所淹沒。

The adminstrations changed, the party labels changed, but the major policies continued. Regardless of which Government was in "power", Fabian's ultimate goal was brought closer each year. The people's policies meant nothing. They were being taxed to the limit, they could pay no more. Now the time was ripe for Fabian's final move.

政府更換、政黨輪替,不過重要的金融措施依舊進行著,不管哪一派當權。費邊每年都離他的目標邁進一步。任何提出的措施在重稅之下皆顯得無效,他們無法再付出更多的錢來了。現在,費邊最後一步的時機成熟了。

10% of the money supply was still in the form of notes and coins. This had to be abolished in such a way as not to arouse suspicion. While the people used cash, they were free to buy and sell as they chose - they still had some control over their own lives.

市場上依然有一成的交易是用鈔票跟硬幣。這些需要被廢除,不過不能引起人們猜忌。當人們運用現金的時候,他們可以自由的買賣東西…他們依然擁有著個人的經濟自由。

But it was not always safe to carry notes and coins. Checks were not accepted outside one's local community, and therefore a more convenient system was looked forward to. Once again Fabian had the answer. His organisation issued everyone with a little plastic card showing the person's name, photograph and an identification number.

不過攜帶現金並不是那麼安全的。支票並不能在世界各地兌現。所以人們開始需要一套更便利的系統。又一次的,費邊有了答案。他的組織給了每個人一張小小的塑膠卡片,上面有著個人的名字、照片還有一串辨識身份的數字。


When this card was presented anywhere, the storekeeper phoned the central computer to check the credit rating. If it was clear, the person could buy what he wanted up to a certain amount.

當這張卡一拿出來,店家就打電話給中央電腦來檢查他的信用額度。如果額度允許,這人可以用他的信用額度為上限來買任何東西。

At first people were allowed to spend a small amount on credit, and if this was repaid within a month, no interest was charged. This was fine for the wage earner, but what businessman could even begin? He had to set up machinery, manufacture the goods, pay wages etc. and sell all his goods and repay the money. If he exceeded one month, he was charged a 1.5% for every month the debt was owed. This amounted to over 18% per year.

一開始人們只可以花小額的費用,如果在期限內歸還,那就不需付利息。這對於薪水階級並不造成重大的問題,不過做生意的人要怎麼開始?他需要購買機器、生產產品、付給薪水等等,之後還要賣出產品才有辦法還錢。如果他超過一個月未繳款,他就要多付出1.8% 的利息,一年下來他就要付超過 18%的利息。

Businessmen had no option but to add the 18% onto the selling price. Yet this extra money or credit (the 18%) had not been loaned out to anyone. Throughout the country, businessmen were given the impossible task of repaying $118 for every $100 they borrowed - but the extra $18 had never been created at all.

商人在沒有其他辦法之下,只好在每樣商品的售價加上 18% 。不過這 18% 從頭到尾都沒有借給任何人。整個國家的商人都面臨了不可能的任務。每借一百塊錢,他們得還出一百一十八,當那十八塊錢從頭到尾都沒有被製造出來。

Yet Fabian and his friends increased their standing in society. They were regarded as pillars of respectability. Their pronouncements on finance and economics were accepted with almost religious conviction.

在這種情況下,費邊跟他的朋友們在社會的地位卻更高了。他們被視為社會的柱石。他們說的任何關於經濟的話像聖經般的被奉行。

Under the burden of ever increasing taxes, many small businesses collapsed. Special licenses were needed for various operations, so that the remaining ones found it very difficult to operate. Fabian owned and controlled all of the big companies which had hundreds of subsidiaries. These appeared to be in competition with each other, yet he controlled them all. Eventually all competitors were forced out of business. Plumbers, panel beaters, electricians and most other small industries suffered the same fate - they were swallowed up by Fabian's giant companies which all had Government protection.

在稅收增加的重擔下,許多的小型企業不堪地倒塌了。許多的活動都需要特殊的執照,所以剩下的公司發現生意越來越難作。費邊擁有,且控制著所有的大公司,每個大公司都有數百個子公司。他們看起來像是互相競爭著,不過實質上的老闆只有他一人。逐漸的,所有的競爭者都破產了。水電工、板金工、還有許多小型產業都遭到了同等待遇… 他們被費邊受到政府保護之下的跨國企業併吞。

Fabian wanted the plastic cards to eliminate notes and coins. His plan was that when all notes were withdrawn, only businesses using the computer card system would be able to operate.

費邊希望這些塑膠卡片可以消滅鈔票跟硬幣。他的計畫是當所有的鈔票都消失,只有用電腦卡系統的公司可以繼續營業。
He planned that eventually some people would misplace their cards and be unable to buy or sell anything until a proof of identify was made. He wanted a law to be passed which would give him ultimate control - a law forcing everyone to have their identification number tattooed onto their hand. The number would be visible only under a special light, linked to a computer. Every computer would be linked to a giant central computer so that Fabian could know everything about everyone.

他計畫著有一天當人們遺失了那張卡的時候,除了出示個人證明,他們將無法買賣任何東西。他希望有條法律通過會給他最後的控制…一條法律讓每個人的辨識碼刺在腦門上。那墨水只有在特殊的光下才看得到,連接到電腦上。每台電腦都連接到中央電腦,所以費邊可以知道關於所有人的所有事情。

________________________________________________________
By the way, the correct terminology used in the financial world for this system is "fractional reserve banking".

順便說一下,在金融世界中使用的這個系統正確的術語是“部分準備金銀行”。

The story you have read is of course, fiction.
But if you found it to be disturbingly close to the truth and would like to know who Fabian is in real life, a good starting point is a study on the activities of the English goldsmiths in the 16th & 17th centuries

這個故事當然只是小說家杜撰的。不過如果你發現這跟現實有驚人的相似處,或是想要知道費邊在現實生活中是誰,一個好的開始點是開始研究英國十六十七世紀的金匠們。.

For example, The Bank of England began in 1694. King William of Orange was in financial difficulties as a result of a war with France. The Goldsmiths "lent him" 1.2 million pounds (a staggering amount in those days) with certain conditions:

一個有名的例子,英國銀行在 1694 年成立。威廉斯國王由於長年與法國戰爭,陷入了財務危機。金匠們『借給了』皇室一百二十萬磅(當年來說是筆驚人的數字)不過有以下條件。

a. The interest rate was to be 8%.
b. The King was to grant the goldsmiths a charter for the bank which gave them the right to issue credit.
Prior to this, their operations of issuing receipts for more money than they held in deposits was totally illegal.The charter made it legal.
一、利息是8%。我們應該記得英國大憲章(Magna Carta)曾經明文規定著利息是唯一死刑的罪。
二、國王給了金匠們的銀行一套法案,讓他們有權力給予信用。在這之前,他們並不可以出借不存在的錢,那是完全違法的。這套法案為此種行為合法化。

In 1694 William Patterson obtained the Charter for the Bank of England.
1694 年 William Patterson 為英國銀行爭取了此法案。


© Larry Hannigan 1971, Australia

IMPORTANT UPDATE from the author,
October 9 2008:
This story was placed on the Internet to be used as an educational tool only.Many people have taken my story, translated into other languages and placed it on the Internet where it has been very helpful.
Sadly, some people have taken my story and claimed it as their own with no acknowledgment to me. Not only that, they have changed my story to suit their own personal philosophy, by leaving some sections out and adding in extra parts, usually about conspiracies (true or false), so called ancient wisdoms, mysteries, and religions etc By doing this, these people are actually helping the enemy. How ?
Sooner or later, the words of Lord Acton will materialise – he said – the issue which has swept down the centuries and will have to be fought sooner or later is THE PEOPLE VERSUS THE BANKS. This battle is getting closer every day in every language. Please do not give the enemy anything that he will use to divide THE PEOPLE with side issues which will give the enemy enormous advantage in distracting people from the real issue that 100 + 0 does not = 105
PLEASE DO NOT INTERFERE WITH MY ORIGINAL ENGLISH TEXT on http://www.larryhannigan.com/TheEarthPlus5.htm
and please have the integrity to acknowledge me.
If you want to discover the real Fabian – visit - http://www.larryhannigan.com/pastpresentfuture1.htm
Larry Hannigan
www.wheylite.com.au

這篇文章,主要在談金本位制度下的貨幣發行政策,有人說金本位制度已於一九七一年廢止。

但金本位制度並不是被廢止,而是當時的美國總統尼克森決定讓美元發行與黃金儲備量脫鉤,也就是美元發行不再以黃金儲備量為基準,簡單講,原本你可以美元兌換等價的黃金,脫鉤之後你就兌換不到黃金了!此舉使得布列頓森林會議以來以美國為首建立的國際金本位金融體系從此崩潰瓦解,國際金融體系相對而言變得很不穩定,才有IMF&World bank後來的產生,美元與黃金脫鉤的結果也是前幾年金融危機的遠因,美國可以無限制地採取發行貨幣寬鬆政策,不斷發行美元到貨幣市場裡面,而政府也可以擴充財政,美國可說是金融危機的元凶! 

以上由 Julian Chen 補充。

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